Write a detailed note on Palearctic Region. It’s Zoology (zoo Geography) Topic for mater students. Palearctic or Palearctic is the largest of the Earth’s eight geographic circles. Also, it is spread throughout Eurasia and North Africa, north of the foothills of the Himalayas. In this topic we will discuss it’s subregions it’s fauna and also it’s affinities.
The Palearctic region is the largest of the eight biogeographic realms of the Earth. It stretches across Eurasia north, the foothills, the Himalayas’ and North Africa.
The sub regions of palearctic regions are European, Mediterranean, Siberian, and also, Manchurian.
It is the largest Zoogeographical region that includes the whole of Europe, the northern part of Africa, north of China, the U.S.S.R (Union of soviet socialist Republic), Japan, Iran, Afghanistan, and Baluchistan (a western province of Pakistan).
Sea is bounded Palearctic region to the west, north, and east and by the Sahara and Himalayas to the south.
Therefore, the Palearctic is in continuous land connection with two of its neighbors, the Ethiopian and Oriental regions, from which a desert separates it in the one case and a high mountain range in the other. It is cut off the sea from its other neighbor, the Nearctic.
The climate is more or less temperate. The region includes wet forest lands, dry open steppe land, and extensive coniferous forests. A wide range of temperature, more significant fluctuation in the rainfall, greater diversity of surface features is the characteristics of the Palearctic region.
There are representatives of 28 families of land mammals in the Palearctic region. This region does not have any large spectacular mammals.
Moles, shrews, rabbits, hedgehogs, squirrels, porcupines, hyenas, camels, donkeys, sheep oxen, deers, bears, cats, and dogs are present. These animals are widespread. Moreover, the two families of mammals unique to the Palearctic region are rodents, namely, Spalacidae and Selovinidae. Only one genus represents each family. In addition, Spalax is a brownish yellow burrowing rat with no tail. Salavinia is mainly remarkable because it was discovered recently in 1938 in Kazakhstan. It is very unique family.
The Palearctic birds include hawks, ducks, stork, cuckoos, kingfishers, swifts, swallows, thrushes, blackbirds, finches, grebes’ loon, etc. Moreover, there is a variety of birds. There are no parrots. The only family restricted to this region is the ‘hedgehog sparrow’ family. They are not present in any other region because hedgehog sparrow is endanger specie.
The reptilian fauna includes turtles, tortoises, a few lizards, and snakes. Finally, there is an alligator in China.
Palearctic is important from the point of view that it has many tailed amphibians, the newts, and salamanders. Of the tailless amphibian, the common toads and frogs are widespread. They are large in number. In addition, there are few tree frogs of both the hylid and polypeptide families.
The vertebrate fauna of Palearctic is not then vibrant. Its fauna’ characteristics are summarized as a complex of Old world tropical families and new world temperate. So, of Palearctic mammals, rabbits, murids, dogs, and bat families are worldwide in distribution. Further, there are shrews, squirrels, mustelids, and cat family members in every other region except Australia. The Palearctic shares bears and deers with Nearctic, Neotropical, and also, Oriental. Besides, bovid with Nearctic, Ethiopian, and Oriental. Families of hedgehogs, porcupines, civets, hyenas, and also, pigs are only present in Ethiopian and Oriental regions. Pandas and raccoons are only present in the Nearctic region. Hence, the camel family is the only mammals family occurring in Palaearctic, which has a discontinuous distribution. In addition, the relatives of camels, Vicunas and Guancoos, live in the Neotropical region.